Trial watch: chemotherapy-induced immunogenic cell death in oncology

June 3, 2023
Source: Oncoimmunology. 2023 Jun 3;12(1):2219591. doi: 10.1080/2162402X.2023.2219591. eCollection 2023.

Authors: Jenny Sprooten, Raquel S Laureano, Isaure Vanmeerbeek, Jannes Govaerts, Stefan Naulaerts, Daniel M Borras, Lisa Kinget, Jitka Fucíková, Radek Spisek, Lenka Palova Jelinkova, Oliver Kepp, Guido Kroemer, Dmitri V Krysko, An Coosemans, Rianne D W Vaes, Dirk De Ruysscher, Steven De Vleeschouwer, Els Wauters, Evelien Smits, Sabine Tejpar, Benoit Beuselinck, Sigrid Hatse, Hans Wildiers, Paul M Clement, Peter Vandenabeele , Laurence Zitvogel, Abhishek D Garg

Immunogenic cell death (ICD) refers to an immunologically distinct process of regulated cell death that activates, rather than suppresses, innate and adaptive immune responses. Such responses culminate into T cell-driven immunity against antigens derived from dying cancer cells. The potency of ICD is dependent on the immunogenicity of dying cells as defined by the antigenicity of these cells and their ability to expose immunostimulatory molecules like damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and cytokines like type I interferons (IFNs). Moreover, it is crucial that the host's immune system can adequately detect the antigenicity and adjuvanticity of these dying cells. Over the years, several well-known chemotherapies have been validated as potent ICD inducers, including (but not limited to) anthracyclines, paclitaxels, and oxaliplatin. Such ICD-inducing chemotherapeutic drugs can serve as important combinatorial partners for anti-cancer immunotherapies against highly immuno-resistant tumors. In this Trial Watch, we describe current trends in the preclinical and clinical integration of ICD-inducing chemotherapy in the existing immuno-oncological paradigms.